How effective are different instruments in terms of achieving a vaginal birth and avoiding significant morbidity for mother and baby?
Not all studies considered all outcomes and, in particular, there were differences in the types of complications encountered by mothers and babies. In addition, there were no studies identified for some comparisons.
Instrumental or assisted vaginal birth is commonly used to expedite birth for the benefit of either mother or baby, or both. It is sometimes associated with significant complications for both mother and baby. The choice of instrument may be influenced by clinical circumstances, operator choice and the availability of specific instruments.