How effective is procaine on cognitive function in the treatment of people with dementia, and for healthy elderly people?
Meta-analysis of beneficial outcomes was not appropriate due to the different preparations, durations and poor quality of trials. Most trials were performed before the 1990s and none reported any criteria for cognitive decline and dementia.
Procaine is a controversial substance that has been used for "antiageing" effects, including cognitive improvement, for more than 50 years. Preparations which contain procaine as a component are claimed to prevent, reverse and interrupt dementia. Several products are widely promoted and can be purchased "over the counter" outside the US and via the internet. Procaine preparations are said to be readily available in over 70 countries and used by more than 100 million people worldwide.